The MED-CAMPUS Certificate Program on
Coastal Zone Management

21 August - 15 September 1994, Ankara - Bodrum, T U R K E Y







1.1. Objectives
1.3. The Program of the MEDCOAST INSTITUTE 94
1.5. The MEDCOAST INSTITUTE Participants
1.6. Academic Degree Awarded
1.7. The MEDCOAST INSTITUTE Lecture Notes



2.1. Intensive Training

    • 2.1.1. Exercise A
      2.1.2. Exercise B
      2.1.3. Exercise C
      2.1.4. Exercise D



4.2. Simulation Game

4.1. Concluding Workshop

    • 4.1.1. Harbours and marinas
      4.1.2. The Güllük airport
      4.1.3. Beaches
      4.1.4. Coastal uses and problems
      4.1.5. Tourism at Bodrum Peninsula
      4.1.6. Fish farms and fishing activities
      4.1.7. Coastal impacts
      4.1.8. Urban population
      4.1.9. Specially Protected Areas (SPA)
      4.1.10.Roles of NGOs and Local Governments
      4.1.11.Legal aspects of the Shore Law
      4.1.12.Environmentally Sensitive Areas


5.1. Management Plan for Sedir Island and Surroundings
5.2. Slide Show


6.2. Contents of the Program
6.3. Qualifications of the Target Group
6.4. Social and Personal Aspects
6.5. Personal Data
6.6. Participants' Suggestions


22 August - 14 September 1994
Ankara-Bodrum, Turkey


1.1. Objectives:

The goal of the MEDCOAST Initiative was to enhance scientific and professional collaboration of individuals and institutes (networking) in the Mediterranean and Black Sea countries or elsewhere for the purposes of:

  • Producing means to improve our understanding of physical and ecological processes taking place in the coastal and sea environment, and their interactions with human activities.
  • Facilitating the utilization of scientific knowledge and management tools in achieving integrated management of coastal and sea areas.
  • Complementing the existing efforts having similar goals, most notably those of the Mediterranean Action Plan.

The Network MEDCOAST, funded by the European Community, comprises of 4 universities and 3 institutions, and aims to contribute to the rational use and protection of coastal and sea resources of the Mediterranean, by developing educational programs. The MED-CAMPUS Certificate Program, organized by the MEDCOAST INSTITUTE 94, has the goal of giving educational programs to professionals and mid level managers. The brochure of the Institute is given in Annex 1. The Institute was developed at Middle East Technical University through collaboration of the institutions participating in the network.


The MED-CAMPUS Certificate Program on Coastal Zone Management in the Mediterranean- funded by the European Community under the Network MEDCOAST- was organized by the MEDCOAST INSTITUTE 94 and held between 22 August - 14 September 1994 in Ankara-Bodrum, Turkey. The program of the MEDCOAST INSTITUTE 94 consisted of three parts:

  • Two-week long formal lectures by the faculty on various topics related to Integrated Coastal Zone Management (ICZM) in the Mediterranean and the Black Sea. The lectures were held at Middle East Technical University (METU), Ankara between 22 August-2 September 1994.


  • An eight-days long field study trip on three traditional wooden boats sailing along the coast of Bodrum Peninsula and the Gökova Bay, and anchoring at locations of significant coastal conservation and/or development activities for observations and interviews. This field study trip took place between 3-11 September 1994.


  • A two-days long concluding workshop, including a half-day long "simulation game" on a scenario, and presentations by the participants. This final part of the MEDCOAST INSTITUTE 94 took place at METU on 13-14 September 1994.

Details of these three parts of the Certificate Program are given in the proceeding sections.

1.3. The Program of the MEDCOAST INSTITUTE 94:

The full program of the MEDCOAST INSTITUTE is given in Annex 2.


The MEDCOAST INSTITUTE Faculty include the following experts from the universities and institutes which cooperate in the Network MEDCOAST:

  • Prof. Aysen Ergin
    Middle East Technical University


  • Dr. Frank van der Meulen
    University of Amsterdam


  • Prof. Erdal Özhan (Head)
    Middle East Technical University


  • Dr. Jens Sorensen
    University of Massachusetts, Boston


  • Prof. Adalberto Vallega
    University of Genoa & ICCOPS


  • Mr. Jentje van der Weide
    Delft Hydraulics


  • Prof. Allan T. Williams
    University of Glamorgan

In addition, experts from the Mediterranean Action Plan and the GEF Black Sea Project were invited as guest lecturers, for introducing these important international efforts towards coastal and sea management. Dr. Ljubomir Jeftic, Deputy Coordinator-The Mediterranean Action Plan could join the Institute for the opening day and gave a very valuable two hour-long lecture.

For presenting country reports to the Institute, five people were invited as adjunct faculty. These adjunct faculty, beside presenting country reports, actively contributed to the Institute in common sessions and discussions. The adjunct faculty members are:

  • Dr. Anna Marson
    University of Venice, Venezia-ITALY


  • Ms. Neda Kozelicki
    Ministry of Civil Engineering and Environmental Protection, Rijeka-CROATIA


  • Mr. Vicente Gracia Garcia
    University of Catalonia, Barcelona-SPAIN


  • Ms. Lilian Battelino
    Water Management Institute, Ljubljana-SLOVENIA


  • Mr. Plamen Djadjev
    Ministry of Environment, Sofia-BULGARIA

1.5. The MEDCOAST INSTITUTE Participants:

The MEDCOAST INSTITUTE was designed for:

  • Professionals who hold mid-managerial positions in their central governments and who are responsible for planning and execution of programs or projects on coastal and sea issues.

Next priorities were given (in decreasing order) to:

  • Municipalities,
  • Non-Governmental Environmental Organizations, and
  • Universities.

For eligibility of acceptance to the Institute, the participants were required to have:

  • A basic university degree (Bachelor of Science, Engineering, Art or Law) in a relevant field, and
  • An experience of at least 5 years.

More than 100 applications were received by the Institute Secretariat and among these 23 participants from 13 countries were selected. Unfortunately, due to personal reasons the participants from Greece and Italy, and due to communication problems one participant from Algeria could not attend to the program. This reduced the number of participants of the Institute to 20 representing 12 countries. The list of participants from the MNC countries is given below:

  • Dr. Amr Abdel-Aziz El-Sammak, Alexandria-EGYPT
  • Mr. Bahlul M. Ghet, Alger-ALGERIA
  • Mr. Levent Yurga, Izmir-TURKIYE
  • Ms. Esin Üçüncüoglu, Izmir-TURKIYE
  • Ms. Irep C. Güner, Ankara-TURKIYE
  • Mr. Gideon Bresler, Nazareth Illet-ISRAEL
  • Ms. Gülsün Yesilhüyük, Ankara-TURKIYE
  • Mr. Dridi Khemaies, La Goulette Port-TUNISIA
  • Mrs. Yüksel Orhan, Samsun-TURKIYE
  • Dr. Abdelaziz El Hraiki, Rabat-MOROCCO
  • Mr. Oguzhan Yurteri, Ankara-TURKIYE
  • Ms. Besire Çulhaoglu, Ankara-TURKIYE
  • Mr. Atila Uras, Ankara-TURKIYE
  • Mr. Zafer Kìzìlkaya, Ankara-TURKIYE
  • Dr. Saleh Abdalla, JORDAN

The following participants from the Black Sea countries enrolled in the Institute through funding by other sources.

  • Dr. Tamaz Akoubardia, Tbilisi-REPUBLIC OF GEORGIA
  • Dr. Yuri G. Mikhailichenko, Moscow-RUSSIA
  • Dr. Ivan T. Rusev, Odessa-UKRAINE
  • Mr. Julian Postolache, Constanta-ROMANIA
  • Dr. Konstantin Galabov, Sofw-BULGARIA

The participation with respect to countries are given the following table in the next page:


The distribution of participants according to their backgrounds, degrees and positions are indicated below:

  • Backgrounds:
    Engineering (7)
    Natural Sciences (9)
    Social Sciences (4)


  • Degrees:
    B. Eng., B.Sc., or B.A. (9)
    M.Eng., M.Sc., or M.A. (5)
    Ph.D. (6)


  • Positions:
    Government Agency (9)
    University/Research Orga. (9)
    Private Sector (1)

The distribution of age among the participants was 22 to 52 years.

1.6. Academic Degree Awarded:

The MEDCOAST INSTITUTE awarded a MED-CAMPUS CERTIFICATE in Coastal Zone Management to the participants who successfully completed the course work, the field investigation, and the final workshop. A copy of the Certificate is given in Annex 3.

1.7. The MEDCOAST INSTITUTE Lecture Notes:

Each participant of the MEDCOAST INSTITUTE received a set containing the lecture notes discussed during the two-weeks intensive training and references relevant to each lecture of the Faculty Members. The list of all documents distributed, grouped under the names of the Faculty Members, are given below:

Prof. Aysen Ergin

  1. A. Ergin (1994). Coastal Engineering. (Lecture notes)

Dr. Ljubomir Jeftic

  1. L. Jeftic. Integrated Coastal Zone Management in the Mediterranean Action Plan of UNEP. MEDCOAST 93, November 2-5 1993, Antalya-Turkey.
  2. Mediterranean Action Plan and Convention for the Protection of the Mediterranean Sea Against Pollution and Its Related Protocols. UNEP Booklet.
  3. Integrated Management Study for the Area of Izmir. UNEP, Split 1994. MAP Technical Reports Series No: 84.
  4. L. Jeftic et. al. (1990). State of the Marine Environment in the Mediterranean Region. UNEP. Unep Regional Seas Reports and Studies No: 132. MAP Technical Reports Series No: 28.

Dr. Frank van der Meulen

  1. EUCC (European Union for Coastal Conservation) brochure.
  2. Capita Selecta Nature Conservation Policies: The Case of the Netherlands. (Lecture notes)
  3. Coastal and Marine Systems: Sandy Coasts & Dunes (F. vd Meulen & J. vd Weide). (Lecture notes)
  4. Introduction to Coastal Ecology on a Global Scale. (Lecture notes)

Prof. Erdal Özhan

  1. Transport Phenomena and Coastal Water Quality. (Lecture notes)
  2. Coastal Developments and Environmental Impacts. (Lecture notes)
  3. Marinas. (Lecture notes)
  4. Specially Protected Areas (Mediterranean). (Lecture notes)
  5. Marina Technology (Editor W. R. Blain)
    Computational Mechanics Publication-Thomas Telford
  6. 3-D Mathematical Modelling of Currents and Pollutant Transport in Izmir Bay
    Hydraulics and Environmental Modelling of Coastal Waters
    (E. Özhan & L. Hapoglu)
  7. Water Quality Improvement Measures for Mariws Subjected to Weak Tidal Motion
    Erdal Özhan, COPEDEC (1991).

Prof. Jens Sorensen

  1. J. Sorensen and S. T. Mc Creary (1990). Institutional Arrangements for Managing Coastal Resources and Environments. Renewable Resources Information Services. Coastal Management Publications No: 1 (Revised 2nd Edition). (Few chapters not included)
  2. The International Proliferation of ICZM Efforts. Ocean and Coastal Management 21 (1993) 45-80.
  3. Coastal Zone Management/Integrated Policies. OECD.
  4. Coastal Zone Management/Selected Case Studies. OECD.
  5. The Noordwijk Guidelines for ICZM. World Coast Conference 93, 1-5 November 1993 Noordwijk, The Netherlands. The World Bank/Environment Department: Land, Water and Natural Habitats Division
  6. Confronting Political and Economic Realities with Management Techniques and Governance Arrangements. (Lecture notes)

Prof. Adalberto Vallega

  1. A Conceptual Approach to Integrated Coastal Management. Ocean and Coastal Management 21 (1993) 149-162.
  2. Block A: The Structure of Agenda 21 for the Mediterranean. (Lecture notes)
  3. Block B: Natural Processes and Economic Contexts in the Mediterranean Coastal Areas. (lecture notes)
  4. Block C: The Role of Legal and Jurisdictional Mediterranean Frameworks. (Lecture notes)
  5. Block D: The Coastal Uses Structures. (Lecture notes)
  6. Block E: The Core Issues and Possible options. (Lecture notes)

Mr. Jentje van der Weide

  1. DELFT Brochure-2
  2. A Systems View of Integrated Coastal Management. (Lecture notes)
  3. Information Systems and Decision Support Systems in Marine and Coastal resources Management: Experiences from the North Sea and the Gulf Region (H. vd Most & M. B. de Vries)
  4. Legislative Instruments and Governance Arrangements for CZM. (Lecture notes)

Prof. Allan T. Williams

  1. Global Environmental Issues: Causes of Climatic Change. (Lecture notes)
  2. Global Environmental Issues: The Validity of Global Warming. (Lectuw notes)
  3. Management Strategies for UK Coastal Conservation. (Lecture notes)
  4. Tidal Flats and Muds. (Lecture notes)
  5. Rocky Coast Management. (lecture notes)

The exercises carried out and presentations given by the participants during the MEDCOAST INSTITUTE 94 are listed below:

  1. Problems of Coastal Areas in the Mediterranean
    Contributions of participants from 16 countries.
  2. Problems and Uses of Coastal Areas with respect to 3 regions: The Black Sea, Eastern Mediterranean and Western Mediterranean.
  3. Uses of Coastal Areas in the Mediterranean
    Contributions of participants from 16 countries.
  4. Presentations of participants on national coastal issues and problems.
  5. Presentations of participants on their observations during the Bodrum Peninsula field study on assigned topics.

Adjunct Faculty:

Dr. Anna Marson
Country Report (Italy)

Ms. Neda Kozelicki
Country Report (Croatia)

Mr. Vicente Gracia Garcia
Country Report (Spain)

Ms. Lilian Battelino
Country Report (Slovenia)

Mr. Plamen Djadjev
Country Report (Bulgaria)

Also included within the set of documents were the following:

  1. The MEDCOAST Initiative (General Introduction of the Opening Session)
  2. Participant and Faculty List
  3. Final Program


2.1. Intensive Training:

The intensive training of the MEDCOAST INSTITUTE 94 during the first two weeks took place at room CES1 - Civil Engineering Department of METU. The full time table is given in Annex 2.

The questions and comments period regarding the information delivered took place right after the lectures. The longer discussions and exercises related to some of the concepts lasted longer, some the whole afternoon. These exercises are also indicated on the program in Annex 2. During these exercises various issues regarding coastal zone management were discussed. Details about these exercises are indicated below:

2.1.1. Exercise A: Presentations of participants on CZM issues in their countries:

This first exercise had the aim of informing the group about the coastal issues of each country being represented at the Institute, at the same time providing general information about the country itself ( e.g. population, area, length of coasts, existing legislation on coasts, etc.). The participants, together with the faculty, had a chance to learn the CZM issues existing in many of the countries of the Mediterranean and the Black Sea. Details from some of the presentations are given below:

MOROCCO: This country has 3,500 kilometres of coast length, which is mainly used for urbanization. Population of Morocco is 26 million, with 3% growth rate. Due to its mild climate, the country is capable of hosting 3 million tourists every year, both through public and private investments. The fishing industry employs 2 million of the population and fish production is 1.2 million tons per year- 60% of it being exported. The harbours play an dynamic economic role for most coastal cities, like for Tanger and Nador on the Mediterranean coast.

Morocco's coasts are under the responsibility of central government authorities- the Undersecretariat for Environment. The objectives of this authority is to set the environmental policies of the country; coordinate and prepare regulations; and cooperate with other ministries and agencies, such as urban agencies, Ministry of Agriculture, Ministry of Industry and Energy, Ministry of Tourism. As for the legal context, the final form of Morocco's Environment Law was elaborated between 1985-87, which was presented to the Government in 1993 and came into force.

ITALY: Being one of the industrialized countries of the Mediterranean basin, Italy bears 7,000 kilometers of coastline, where 1/3 of the population lives along this strip. The coastal problems presently existing in the country are: water pollution (due to agriculture, urbanization & industry); erosion and subsidence; degradation of coastal environment; hazards related to oil transportation; dumping of wastes; and, over-fishing.

The institutional set-up and existing legislations for coasts of Italy can be classified as:

  • Central Government=Merchant Marine & Transport Ministry + Public Works Ministry + Environmental Ministry + Health Care Ministry (bathing water quality) + University and Research Ministry together with several interministerial arrangements
  • Local Governments=elected Regional and Provincial Authorities + Municipalities
  • Other=River Basin Authority + Genio Civile-Magistrato alle Acque (Local bodies of Public Works Ministry) + Capitanerie di Porto

With all these organizations sharing the responsibilities on coastal issues, there exists problems in implementation, despite the legislation being almost complete.

SPAIN: The coasts of Spain have a length of almost 7,900 kilometers, of which 25% corresponds to beaches. The whole strip is controlled by 478 Municipalities, which represents about 14 million people (30% of the total population) living close to the coasts.

As a result of extensive growth in the tourism industry and lack of management plans, numerous constructions, like marinas and sea-front promenades, were constructed on the beaches. Eventually many erosion problems occurred. Following these events, the first law on coasts was in force in 1969. Unfortunately, its content was insufficient, therefore not much action was achieved. During the 1980s, considerable effort was made through MOPU to protect and recover the Spanish coastline. The implementations were carried out through the following:

  • management of state territories
  • coastal action plans
  • marine climate
  • conditioning of beaches
  • maritime signals

All the legal actions concerned were made under the legal support of the "Ley the Costas", approved in 1988.

TURKEY: With a 8,272 kilometers of total coastline, 47.5% of the country's population lives in coastal provinces (1985 census figure). The coastal provinces in this respect cover almost 30% of Turkey's total area. According to the most recent figures, urban areas along the coasts grew 39.1%. The consequences of this extensive urbanization along the coasts resulted in:

  • unplanned housing developments,
  • lack of infrastructure, and
  • deterioration of urban and natural coastal areas and waters.

As a result of industry, agriculture and tourism competing for the same natural and environmental resources on the coasts of Turkey, the conflicts become more and more apparent.

The governmental agencies that take responsibility for CZM activities in Turkey can be grouped under two headings:

  • Development Agencies:
    Ministry of Industry and Trade
    Ministry of Tourism
    Ministry of Public Works and Settlements
    State Planning Organization


  • Environment and Resource Management Agencies:
    Ministry of Environment
    Authority for Specially Protected Areas
    Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs
    Ministry of Forestry
    Ministry of Culture

The coastal zone legislation in Turkey depends mainly on the existing Coast Law (enacted in 1990), Environmental Law (1983) and some other laws.

2.1.2. Exercise B: Coastal uses and problems of each country

This exercise was concentrated on the countries. Various coastal "uses" and coastal "problems" were listed and representatives of each country were asked to rank each item from 1 to 6, 1 representing the most important. The main coastal uses listed were:

waste discharge
transportation & ports
military zones
illegal constructions
use of aquifer water
sand mining

"Urbanization" and "energy" were ranked as the primary coastal use by most of the participants. "Tourism", "transportation", "ports" and "fisheries" were some of the second most important coastal uses. The full list representing the priorities of the countries is given in Annex 4.

As for the coastal problems, the list consisted of the following items:

insufficient infrastructure
hazards to underwater world
landscape/destruction to nature
declination of biodiversity
air pollution
water pollution
lack of technical staff
lack of laws
rapid development
market economy
transportation/industrial hazards
lack of planning

As the primary coastal problem, "water pollution" was chosen by the majority. "Erosion", "air pollution", "lack of laws", "transportation" and "destruction to nature" were some of the second most important coastal problems. The full list of answers for this part of the exercise is also given under Annex 4.

2.1.3. Exercise C: Primary coastal uses and problems of 3 regions

This exercise had a similar objective as exercise 2, but for this case the area of interest was not the countries but the regions. This group work, which took place on 26 August 1994, was based on the primary coastal uses and coastal problems in 3 geographical regions, namely the Black Sea, the Eastern Mediterranean and the Western Mediterranean. Participants were grouped into these 3 regions. Each group was formed by the nationals of that region.

The primary coastal use was found as "tourism" by all groups. The Black Sea and Eastern Mediterranean groups ranked "industry" as the second most important, whereas Western Mediterranean group chose "urban settlements" as the second most important coastal use. The third priority varied slightly for each group: Western Mediterranean and Black Sea chose "Port & Harbour Facilities and Transportation" as compared to Eastern Mediterranean, who thought it was "Urbanization". The full uses table is given in Annex 5.

The second part of this exercise consisted of coastal problems in national and regional scope. The primary coastal problem noted by all groups was "pollution" (for Eastern Mediterranean "coastal pollution" and for the other two groups "water pollution").

The second ranking problem varied for all groups: "erosion" for Western Mediterranean, "lack of legal arrangements" for Eastern Mediterranean and "destruction of coastal habitats" for the Black Sea. The full table regarding primary coastal problems in 3 regions is also given in Annex 5.

2.1.4. Exercise D: Coastal uses matrix

This exercise carried out at the Institute was on multiple uses of coastal areas and on the relationships among various uses. The multiple uses were listed as a matrix and the participants were asked to fill out the table with respect to the problems associated at their countries. This exercise was carried out following Prof. Vallega's lecture on Thursday, 1st September. The matrix is available under Annex 6.

The multiple uses listed at the matrix are given on the next page:

Mineral resources

Biological resources

Waste disposal and pollution





Navigation and communication

    • shipping
      separation lines
      navigation aids
      offshore port terminal
      sand and gravel dredging
      exploration drilling
      production plants up to 200 m. isobath
      production plants beyond 200 m. isobath
      coastal oil plants
      ocean mining
      demersal fishing
      pelagic fishing
      riverine discharge
      industrial outfalls
      urban sewage
      oil pollution
      exercise areas
      scientific research
      yacht racing
      marine cruising
      marine parks

The results of this exercise were later discussed with respect to developed and developing countries. It was agreed by all participants that conflicts arise between environmental protection and all other fields of industry- such as coastal oil plants, shipping, sand and gravel dredging, defense exercises, all types of pollution, or recreation- when environmental benefits are the target. The results were interesting in the sense that for Egypt for example exploration and dredging were the most important environmental concerns of the country. As for Bulgaria, pelagic fish were under threat due to oil pollution. One of the Turkish participants emphasized the importance of nature reserves and the threat being faced even as the result of scientific research.

Prof. Vallega found the outcome of the exercise as very valuable and interesting and therefore, took a copy of the overall results for his future studies.


The program of the field study trip is given in Annex 7. The impressions of the participants about the trip is described in a report, handed in Annex 8.


4.1. Concluding Workshop:

The aim of the concluding workshop was to re-evaluate the field study trip around the Bodrum Peninsula and, with respect to the issues shared by each participant, listen and discuss the realities of this area from coastal zone management point of view. The presentations, in this respect, were very constructive. All of the participants were very well prepared on the specific topics assigned to them. The list of the topics, and summary of comments are given below:

4.1.1. Harbours and marinas:

The harbours around Bodrum Peninsula are given below:

  • Güllük
  • Torba Bay (not well-equipped)
  • Gündogan Bay
  • Yalìkavak
  • Akyarlar, Turgutreis
  • Bodrum Marina
  • Jetty near the Türkevleri Power Plant

The observed environmental impacts were:

  • aesthetic impact
  • water pollution (penalty by Government must be introduced)
  • human activity increase on land
  • increased port traffic
  • anchor damage
  • habitat disturbance

4.1.2. The Güllük airport:

Airports are generally built near areas where population exceeds 250,000. The objectives can range from tourism, transportation, military, health, cargo, etc. The Güllük airport will be build to serve the mass-tourism purpose. The closest airport to the area is at Dalaman, which is 1.5 hours drive. The construction of the new airport will cause extensive damage in the area, especially on bird populations at the wetland. An EIA must have been done for the suggested area before the construction phase. An EIA study was not carried out for the Güllük area. Milas, which has a topography of a flat land and only 45 kilometers away from Bodrum, could have been a better alternative for the proposed airport construction site.

4.1.3. Beaches:

The beaches around the Bodrum Peninsula were checked with respect to the following category:

  • length and width (small < 60 m & large > 500 m)
  • material type (gravel and sand)
  • water visibility
  • present state (human impact, extensive patches of posedonia)
  • problems associated:
    • solid waste
    • buildings close to shoreline
    • roads close to beach (creating noise pollution)
    • difficult access
    • degradation of posedonia due to anchoring

4.1.4. Coastal uses and problems:

The coastal uses and problems observed around the area of interest are given below:

  • urbanization and secondary housing
  • recreation
  • fishing and fish-farming
  • navigation and communication
  • natural heritage
  • mineral resources
  • biological resources
  • research activities

4.1.5. Tourism at Bodrum Peninsula:

Bodrum area is very popular nationally and internationally as a tourist destination.

4.1.6. Fish farms and fishing activities:

Major findings on the fishing and fish-farming facilities around Bodrum Peninsula, observed by two of the participants, are indicated below:

  • the fish-farming process:
    • incompleteness in food chain (catch of juveniles which harms the ecosystem)
    • strongly dependant on internal and external markets (fish food imported and caught fish exported) resulting in low economic sustainability
    • low technology (low added value and poor prospective)
  • organization of commercial fishing and its marketing:
    • no general considerations of the fishing activity (regulations must be placed, especially on Black Sea fishermen)
    • insufficient depth of fish market (low consumption)
    • low synergy between tourism and fish-farming
  • conflicts: The conflicts listed below exist between fish farming activities and;
    • fishing activity
    • touristic settlements
    • variation of natural sites
    • water quality of enclosed seas
    • outlets from touristic and residential activities
    • ecosystem conservation
  • inter-institutional lack of co-ordination:
    • permit system
    • lack of coordination

4.1.7. Coastal impacts:

In general, the coastal impacts observed around the area are listed as:

  • pollution
  • erosion
  • infrastructure
  • industry

4.1.8. Urban population:

Coast Act (amendments in 1993) require 100 meter set-backs from the shore.

4.1.9. Specially Protected Areas (SPA):

The area under consideration was the Sedir Island. Please refer to the final section for detailed information.

4.1.10. Roles of NGOs and Local Governments:

As pointed out by the participant, centralization is required for implementation of main coastal issues.

4.1.11. Legal aspect of the Shore Law:

4.1.12. Environmentally Sensitive Areas:

The Güllük wetland in the area of interest is an Environmentally Sensitive Area. Due to the presence of drainage channels (built to drain water before airport construction), the area lost its natural properties.

4.2. Simulation Game:

The simulation game held during the final part of the concluding workshop was kindly provided by the International Academy of the Environment-Geneva. The multi-party simulation was on Ibis Bay, an estuary located between two municipalities. A summary of the complete multi-party simulation is given below:

Meditalya and Aegeana, twice in population, are two municipalities located 4 kilometres apart on the Ibis Bay. Meditalya's economy is primarily composed of fishing and tourism related enterprises, while Aegeana is more industrially developed, centring around the Botram Industrial Park. A recent event arose between the two municipalities when Aegeana's mayor made an effort to fill-in the wetland located between the two municipalities because of a perceived disease threat from the "swamps". This act made the people of Meditalya to think that Aegeana is determined to undermine their local economy. Due to all the adverse publicity, Aegeana backed down and dropped its plans to fill in the wetlands. Recently, a non-governmental organization (NGO), the National Ecological Club (NEC) sponsored an important study revealing that the most abundant marsh grass, central to the survival of the wetlands, is being destroyed by municipal sewage and industrial waste. Following this, the mayor of Meditalya, the local tourism association, and the small Fishermen's Association (FA) joined ranks with the environmentalists demanding instant relief from the central government.

The current situation is such that the waste water from the industrial park and the municipalities is dumped untreated, directly into Ibis Bay or into agricultural canals which empty into the bay. Without consulting the mayor of Meditalya or the FA, the NEC began to garner support from international nature conservation groups to protect the loss of the wetlands. Pressure was exerted to designate the wetlands and the adjacent areas-land that is currently under the jurisdiction of the two municipalities, a "Unique Zone"- under a recent international convention signed. The National Department of Public Works (NDPW), having learned of the problems in the Aegeana/Meditalya area and the possibility of securing international funds to address the problem, initiated an investigation into conditions for receiving financial assistance for building a sewage treatment plant. Based on a detailed criteria, it was clear to the NDPW that the municipalities would probably have to consider the establishment of some type of new institutional arrangement to manage future operation of the sewage treatment plant. Given the lack of funds available for building the sewage treatment facility, the range of views held by concerned parties in Meditalya and Aegeana, and the coalition that would be required to arrive at a jointly acceptable solution to the problem, the agencies decided to approach the municipalities together and explore these options.

The following people were invited to attend the meeting:

  • Ms. S. Gazur, Mayor of Meditalya
  • Ms. M. Dindi, Regional Director, the NEC
  • Mr. Fisher Selim, President, FA
  • Ms. M. Oymen, Director for the Southwest Region, Ministry of Ecology
  • Mr. H. Cevic, Mayor of Aegeana
  • Mr. Y. Husseyin, President, Chamber of Commerce, Aegeana
  • Mr. A. Ates, President, Botram Industrial Park
  • Mr. S. Nadir, Deputy Director, NDPW

The discussions of the members lasted nearly 3 hours. The discussions were very active and for many of the participants it was for the first time to act in a simulation game. The conclusion reached was the following: "The grant that was necessary for building the sewage treatment facility will be provided by the international environmentalist and conservation groups. For directing the money flow and the building of the required facility, a team will be formed. The members of this team will be selected through voting (of all group members), but definitely a representative of the industry will be present in the group".


The conclusion of the whole program consisted of two parts:

  • Discussions on a Management Plan for Sedir Island, Gökova and the Cleopatra Beach
  • A slide show of the whole field study trip

5.1. Management Plan for Sedir Island, Gökova and the Cleopatra Beach:

This exercise was carried out on the last day of the Institute. The objective was, with the collaboration of all participants and Faculty members, to formulate a management plan for the Sedir Island and the Cleopatra Beach. Sedir Island, roughly 600 meters long and 400 meters wide, is located on Gökova Bay. The island is famous for its natural beauty, archaeological remains and worldwide known Cleopatra Beach of ooids.

The discussion, which lasted nearly 2.5 hours was very fruitful and gave a final insight to everyone regarding how an ICZM approach can be followed towards maintaining a very significant site of natural and historical beauty in designing a management plan that could be put into action. The items, which were suggested by the group to be included in the management plan of this important site, are given below:

Important resources of the island:

  • Cleopatra beach
  • historical remains
  • nature aspect, with the shore formations and vegetation
  • Posedonia ocenica sea grass
  • underwater remains
  • the other beach on the island and rest of the beaches surrounding the mainland
  • clean water
  • aesthetic and recreational value
  • the legend of Cleopatra Beach
  • fresh water springs

Present usage and the problems today:

  • loss of sand (ooids)
  • insufficient information to visitors
  • no management of the ancient site (the ruins may be damaged in time by the visitors)
  • improper usage (restaurants, changing rooms, umbrellas, benches, etc.)
  • littering (plastics, cans, etc. creating solid waste problem)
  • lack of fresh water
  • anchoring near the island (damage to posedonia, historical ruins, etc.)
  • shabby development (kiosks, WC, etc.)
  • insufficient management (lack of proper guarding and information in different languages)
  • lack of facility for usage of underwater resources (snorkelling, diving, etc.)
  • insufficient care-taking of the olive trees
  • unaesthetic usage of some recreation elements (beach umbrellas, etc.)
  • possibility of fire due to dry vegetation and uncontrolled access
  • disturbance of flora and fauna
  • too many people on the island (2000 people/day as 1993 figure)
  • insufficient cash used for management (entrance fee)
  • insufficient knowledge on resources
  • uncontrolled access to the island
  • safety of resources (stealing of cultural objects from the ruins, underground and underwater historical objects)
  • possibility of illegal diving
  • who is really responsible from the island???

Suggestions for proper management:

The numbers after each suggestion indicates the total number of votes for that particular management item. The total number of participants which were present during voting was 24.

  • It should be declared and managed as an open-air museum (24)
  • People should be brought to the island by public boats so that the local people will earn money (no anchoring but berthing will be allowed) (23)
  • Levy on boat fare to be introduced, which will be used for the management of the island. In this case, entrance fee will not be applicable (24)
  • Usage of Cleopatra Beach;
    • only swimming and no access to the beach (9)
    • no use at all with minor exceptions (6)
    • manage access and take measures for the loss of the beach sand. In this case, beach usage will not be restricted (6)
  • Access to different locations on the island, including the sandy beach, only by the leadership of guides (15)
  • A facility-Visitor Center- to give information about the island, legend, etc.
    • location on the island (13)
    • location on the mainland (6)
  • Little museum, with display of archaeological remains of the island, together with the visitor center (22)
  • Anfi-theatre should be repaired a little and put into use (22)
  • Management of snorkelling and diving with guides (19)
  • Excavation of ruins and their display (22)
    • no repairment, but sufficient information (1)
  • Pathways (24)
  • No smoking on the island (16)

(If declared as a national park, the Ministry of Forestry will be the responsible authority according to Turkish legislation.)

5.2. Slide show!

A show of 300 slides covering the whole of the field study trip around the Bodrum Peninsula from the start to the end was given by Prof. Özhan. The show consisted of very interesting slides, representing the marvellous atmosphere of the trip and took everyone deep into memories. It was a wonderful replay!


The questionnaire addressed to the participants of the MEDCOAST INSTITUTE 94 is given in Annex 9. The questionnaire included 5 sections, as indicated below:

  • Content of the Program
  • Qualifications of the Target Group
  • Social and Personal Aspects
  • Personal Data

Altogether 11 questions were directed to the participants. The evaluation of results are indicated below. The evaluation of each question is based on the count of the mostly given answers.


The participants of the Institute rated the selection of the course curriculum, in particular to issues of the Mediterranean and the Black Sea, and the course program as successful. The topics of two-week long intensive training were also found successful just as the 8-days field study along the Bodrum Peninsula. The choice of anchoring locations' significance in terms of coastal conservation and/or development activities was highly approved by all participants. The documents provided, the MEDCOAST Faculty and the guest speaker, and all social activities organized were regarded as successful. The length of the Certificate Program, despite all the positive aspects, was found a little too long and the participants proposed the duration of the future programs to be between 2-3 weeks.

6.2. Contents of the Program

The majority of the participants strongly approved the inclusion of the following topics within the curriculum of the MEDCOAST INSTITUTE 94;

  • Specific Coastal Zone Management (CZM) issues and problems in the Mediterranean and the Black Sea
  • Sustainable Development for Integrated Coastal Zone Management (ICZM).
  • Theoretical framework for ICZM
  • Coastal management techniques
  • Coastal management tools
  • Coastal development activities.

The inclusion of the following topics to the curriculum were rated on the average as "agreeable" (4 at a scale of 5) by the participants:

  • Physical description of coastal systems
  • Ecological description of coastal systems
  • Coastal and sea resources, and their uses
  • Institutional arrangements
  • Legal arrangements
  • Mediterranean Agenda 21 (Rio Declaration) efforts
  • Introduction to Global Environmental Facility (GEF) project and the international collaboration for the Black Sea

The lectures with the title "Review of Past Mediterranean Action Plan (MAP) Activities" did not receive the majority vote for inclusion within the curriculum of future institutes, therefore it was rated as "undecided" by the participants. Most of the participants thought that a lecture on Environmental Economics would be complimentary along with important case studies specific to the Mediterranean and the Black Sea area.

6.3. Qualifications of the Target Group

As regards to the most important qualifications to be considered when deciding on a candidate's eligibility for the MEDCOAST INSTITUTE, the participants all agreed that the educational background of the applicant-with a minimum B.Sc. degree in a related field- would be the most important aspect. The second most important qualifications for acceptance was seen as the availability of a post-graduate degree (either M.Sc. or Ph.D.), list of publications, if any, English proficiency, previous business/employment experience together with basic managerial skills. The age range and sufficient capital resource if no financial aid available were regarded as the least important aspects towards receiving acceptance to the Institute.

The most important target group of the MEDCOAST INSTITUTE 94 was the mid-level managers of the government agencies. The results of the questionnaire also indicated that middle level managers working at government agencies should receive priority in participation. Local government managers together with university academic staff were also rated as important after the above. High level managers of government agencies, employees of government agencies, local government employees, NGO employees, research organization employees were rated as second most important. NGO managers received third level after this group. Representatives of industry were found as the least important target group for participation.

6.4. Social and Personal Aspects

Most of the participants answered the question 'what assistance could be useful to make the participants' stay more enjoyable?' as "everything perfect!" But, some of them pointed out various issues which will be of use in designing the organisations of future MEDCOAST INSTITUTEs. The following are some of the raised topics:

During the stay in Ankara:

  • more in-time information about the staying conditions and next-day organizations
  • accommodation in single rooms for each participant
  • organisation of after-dinner social programs or local cultural activities
  • avoidance of uniformity in meals
  • inter-participant discussion programs
  • preliminary information about METU
  • meeting and discussion hours outside the conference room
  • organisation of lectures at place where the field study will be held.

During the field trip:

  • more communication of plans to participants
  • shorter duration
  • maximum effort in keeping the accommodation and meals in equilibrium
  • provision of more interaction between the boats
  • more information in advance about the trip for better preparation (clothes, swimming equipment, etc.)
  • the natural area

In general, the participants rated the whole program as very successful. The weekend trip to Cappadocia and the boat trip along the Bodrum Peninsula (which included comments on the life, accommodation and meals on the boat) played a great role in their decision. The evening dinners held at the University Social Club, the conference room, sight-seeing arrangements were regarded as satisfactory by the majority. However, the accommodation at the university hostel-based on double occupancy rooms-, breakfast & lunches were rated as average in quality.

6.5. Personal Data

The answers of the questionnaire indicated that some of the participants have worked for their present company for more than 15 years. There were few new-graduates on with work experience less than 5 years. Many of the participants have worked for their present company ever since they started work, with few exceptions of having worked in various other organisations. Most of the participants mentioned their previous career experiences, some in the academic field, and others in public or the private sector. Generally, the average number of working hours of the participants per week during the last 6 months were between 40 to 50 hours.

This year 25 participants from 16 different countries attended the MEDCOAST INSTITUTE 94. The positions of the respondents who answered the questionnaire were as follows:

  • expert in the Ministry of Environment
  • senior scientist, project manager
  • president of an NGO
  • chief specialist, Ministry of Science and Technology Policy of the Russian Federation
  • new graduate
  • university instructor (x2)
  • researcher (x6)
  • regional planner in the Ministry of Environment
  • government consultant
  • government adviser
  • city planner
  • director of department

6.6. Participants' Suggestions for Improvement of the Institute:

A great majority of the participants of MEDCOAST INSTITUTE 94 rated all activities throughout the duration of the program as very well organized. The Institute from all aspects was regarded as very efficient theoretically and practically and enjoyable socially. The participants were mostly with different backgrounds. One of the participants, who had insufficient insight to ICZM issues before, thanked the Institute for providing an introduction to a wide area of coastal issues which must not be treated as one dimensional and with only physical solutions. A participant, working for the public sector, suggested the Institute to work towards placing some sanctions to the Central Government for initiating legal arrangements towards the establishment of a strong coastal organisation.

There was an important suggestion by one of the participants regarding medical insurance. He suggested the arrangement of medical insurance for all participants, which to be covered by the Institute in future organisations.

Due to compressed time table, many participants agreed that there was insufficient time for further discussions. Many of the participants felt that discussions should have been carried further and more time spared for comments at the end of each lecture. One of the participants suggested the lectures to be more compressed, such that each day the lectures can be held between 9:00-13:00 and 14:00-18:00.

The topics chosen were found very interesting, though one suggested the selection to be made according to the background of the participants.

The faculty members were regarded as wonderful and brilliant! The organization of the lectures was regarded really efficient in giving an overall picture of ICZM. Despite that there were no planned lectures on Environmental Economics, it was stated by one of the participants as very thoughtful of a faculty member to take note of this missing point and emphasizing it during his proceeding lecture.

A suggestion was made on prior mailing of the lecture program to the participants for to facilitate their preparation to the course in advance, which will eventually enhance its effectiveness of the program.

The desire of after-lecture discussions was highly mentioned in the comments of most participants. One proposed longer discussion sessions once or twice a day. The presentations by participants, each representing different regions and countries, was suggested to be longer. One participant thought that this wonderful opportunity for exchanging valuable experiences from different countries could have been used more effectively. Another participant suggested that more time should be allowed for everyone to introduce themselves and give views on specific coastal issues of their countries at the very beginning. With this point in mind, the placement of participants' presentations were suggested to be made on the third or fourth day of the Institute, with durations extending up to 25 minutes. A poster display by participants is another possibility. Also within this frame, another view was in favour of sending information, specifically on presentations, to the participants before their arrival-for well preparation in advance. A videotape session consisting of specific coastal zone examples was suggested to be held which could be followed by a discussion session instead of some lectures.

As regarding the contents of the lectures, some participants suggested it to be more specific with the inclusion of more case studies, particularly addressing to issues of the region. One participant proposed the presentation of real-life examples. A similar suggestion was to start the course with different projects to be carried out by each participant. Another comment regarding the organization of the lectures was to place some theoretical information on ICZM towards the end of the training week. However, most of the participants thought it would be more constructive to have this part of lectures at the beginning.

The program notes were regarded as highly helpful by most of the participants, although one suggested that copies of the transparencies used in the classrooms were not always needed-they could have been reproduced later in smaller scale. The participant also proposed citing some literature as reference of which the lecturers mentioned during their talks.

The majority of the participants found the duration of the course as long. Some suggested reconsideration of the time table for reaching the optimal duration. Their suggestions were towards having 1 week of lectures, together with 1 week of field study and two days of concluding workshop. Some commented on the concluding workshop to be longer in duration, especially in the coming years.

As for the accommodation facilities, most of the participants stated their preferences towards staying in single rooms rather than in double-occupancy rooms at the university hostel. Transportation to/from campus was easy for everyone. All participants found METU campus very big and attractive, with lots of trees and apparently fresh air. One thought, though, the distance between the conference room and the hostel was too long.

As for the field study along the shores of the Bodrum Peninsula, a good source of information regarding the natural habitats, landscape, population, cultural heritage, etc. of the study area was desired by many of the participants. The communication between boats during discussion sessions was found insufficient by some of the people.





09:00-10:00 Registration
10:00-11:00 Opening session

  • Welcome address
  • General introduction to the MEDCOAST INSTITUTE 94 (Özhan)

10:50-11:00 Break
11:00-11:50 Concept and history of ICZM and sustainable development (Sorensen)
11:50-14:00 Lunch break
14:00-14:50 Mediterranean Action Plan (MAP) of UNEP (Jeftic)
14:50-15:00 Break
15:00-15:50 Coastal Zone Management (CZM) in the MAP (Jeftic)
15:50-16:00 Break
16:00-17:00 Orientation of the participants (Staff)
19:30-20:30 Welcome Cocktail
20:30-22:30 Dinner


09:00-09:50 ICZM, Common Methodology using systems analysis.
Part A: Basic Concepts of the system approach (vd Weide)
09:50-10:00 Break
10:00-10:50 ICZM, Common Methodology using systems analysis.
Part B: A general system analogy for the coast (vd Weide)
10:50-11:00 Break
11:00-11:50 Coastal resources (Sorensen)
11:50-14:00 Lunch break
14:00-14:50 Coastal uses (Sorensen)
14:50-15:00 Break
15:00-15:50 The natural coastal system in a global perspective (vd Weide)
15:50-16:00 Break
16:00-16:50 Hydrodynamic processes I (Waves and wave induced currents) (Ergin)


09:00-09:50 Hydrodynamic processes II (Waves and wave induced currents) (Ergin)
09:50-10:00 Break
10:00-10:50 The coastal & marine systems: Basic ecological concepts and systems I (vd Meulen)
10:50-11:00 Break
11:00-11:50 The coastal & marine systems: Basic ecological concepts and systems II (vd Meulen)
11:50-14:00 Lunch break



09:00-09:50 Transport phenomena and coastal water quality (Özhan)
09:50-10:00 Break
10:00-10:50 Coastal water quality management (Özhan)
10:50-11:00 Break
11:00-11:50 Coastal and marine systems: Rocky coast management (Williams)
11:50-14:00 Lunch break
14:00-14:50 Coastal and marine systems: Sandy coasts and dunes (vd Meulen & vd Weide)
14:50-15:00 Break
15:00-15:50 Coastal and marine systems: Sandy coasts and dunes (vd Meulen & vd Weide)
15:50-16:00 Break
16:00-16:50 Coastal and marine systems: Mud coasts and wetlands (Williams)
16:50-17:00 Break
17:00-18:00 Country Report-Italy (Marson)


09:00-09:50 Engineering Technology I (Ergin)
09:50-10:00 Break
10:00-10:50 Engineering Technology II (Ergin)
10:50-11:00 Break
11:00-11:50 Coastal development and environmental impacts I (Özhan)
11:50-14:00 Lunch break
14:00-14:50 Coastal development and environmental impacts II (Özhan)
14:50-15:00 Break
15:00-15:50 Inventory of problems at national and regional levels (Özhan & Williams)
15:50-16:00 Break
16:00-16:50 Inventory of problems at national and regional levels (Özhan & Williams)
16:50-17:00 Break
17:00-18:00 Country Report-Croatia (Kozelicki)



09:00-09:50 Engineering Technology: Use of models and decision support systems in CZM (vd Weide & Özhan)
09:50-10:00 Break
10:00-10:50 CZM techniques and instruments (Sorensen)
10:50-11:00 Break
11:00-11:50 CZM techniques and instruments (Sorensen)
11:50-14:00 Lunch break
14:00-14:50 Environmental economics (Sorensen)
14:50-15:00 Break
15:00-15:50 National and regional CZM practices: uses and problems (All staff)
15:50-16:00 Break
16:00-16:50 National and regional CZM practices: uses and problems (All staff)
16:50-17:00 Break
17:00-18:00 Country Report-Spain (Garcia)


09:00-09:50 Beach management (Williams)
09:50-10:00 Break
10:00-10:50 Coastal tourism (Özhan)
10:50-11:00 Break
11:00-11:50 Marinas (Özhan)
11:50-14:00 Lunch break
14:00-14:50 Specially Protected Areas I (Özhan)
14:50-15:00 Break
15:00-15:50 Specially Protected Areas II (Williams)
15:50-16:00 Break
16:00-16:50 The sea level rise and challenges for CZM (Williams)
16:50-17:00 Break
17:00-18:00 Country Report-Slovenia (Battelino)


09:00-09:50 Governance and institutional arrangements (Sorensen)
09:50-10:00 Break
10:00-10:50 Governance and institutional arrangements (Sorensen)
10:50-11:00 Break
11:00-11:50 The structure of Agenda 21 for the Mediterranean I (Vallega)
11:50-12:00 Break
12:00-12:50 The structure of Agenda 21 for the Mediterranean II (Vallega)
13:00-14:00 Lunch break AFTERNOON FREE


09:00-09:50 Natural processes and economic contexts in the Mediterranean area I (Vallega)
09:50-10:00 Break
10:00-10:50 Natural processes and economic contexts in the Mediterranean area II (Vallega)
10:50-11:00 Break
11:00-11:50 The role of legal and jurisdictional Mediterranean frameworks I (Vallega)
11:50-14:00 Lunch break
14:00-14:50 The role of legal and jurisdictional Mediterranean frameworks II (Vallega)
14:50-15:00 Break
15:00-15:50 Exercises: Coastal problems & uses of the participating countries
15:50-16:00 Break
16:00-16:50 Exercises: Coastal problems & uses of the participating countries
16:50-17:00 Break
17:00-18:00 Country Report-Bulgaria (Djadjev)


09:00-09:50 The coastal uses structure I (Vallega)
09:50-10:00 Break
10:00-10:50 The coastal uses structure II (Vallega)
10:50-11:00 Break
11:00-11:50 The coastal uses structure: multiple uses (Vallega & Özhan)
11:50-14:00 Lunch break
14:00-14:50 The core issues and possible options (Vallega)
14:50-15:00 Break
15:00-15:50 Bodrum Peninsula: Introduction to the field studies (Özhan)
15:50-16:00 Break
16:00-16:50 Bodrum Peninsula: Introduction to the field studies (Özhan & Kiraç)







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