International Workshop on the State-of-the-Art of ICZM
in the Mediterranean and Black Sea:
Immediate Needs for Research, Education & Training, & Implementation
2- 5 November 1996, Sarigerme - Turkey
(MED & Black Sea ICZM 96)
convened in Sarigerme, Turkey, on 2-5 November 1996. The Workshop was attended by 62 participants from 22 countries. The work was carried out in two parallel paper presentation sessions, followed by three parallel group study sessions. The Workshop was sponsored by two prominent international programs for the Mediterranean and Black Sea, namely by the Mediterranean Action Plan/ Priority Action Programs Regional Activity Center of UNEP, and the GEF Black Sea Environmental Programme, in addition to Euro-Mediterranean Center on Insular Coastal Dynamics (ICoD, Malta), the Turkish Ministries and several international and Turkish institutions.
In the Closing Session, the participants of MED & Black Sea ICZM Workshop adopted the following:
CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
Sarigerme, Turkey, the 5th November 1996
1. Generally, the level of actual implementation of ICZM in the Mediterranean and Black Sea regions is variable due to different conditions. In the Mediterranean, three main groups of countries can be distinguished:
(a) countries equipped with sufficient experience and capability to achieve a high level of implementation;
(b) countries that have initiated an ICZM process and show encouraging progress;
(c) countries where the institutional and legal framework is not yet sufficiently developed to support an ICZM process.
In the Black Sea countries, ICZM is still at an early stage. Regional efforts, however, particularly due to the GEF Black Sea Environmental Program with the participation of the World Bank and the European Union, aimed at the establishment of prerequisites for ICZM, are carried out in a systematic way. This is encouraging adaptation of the institutional and legal frameworks that are likely to lead to substantial progress and results in the medium term, especially with improved coordination at the national level.
2. Most ICZM efforts have been prompted by funding opportunities provided by international organizations and donors. In general, the involvement, support and assistance of international organizations in both regions has been highly beneficial.
3. ICZM initiatives have been established generally within the Ministry of the Environment, and in some cases, not involving a role for other relevant ministries. The lack of institutions (agencies) ensuring the integration of sectoral policies is presently a major obstacle for several countries. Furthermore, ICZM has been promoted through pilot projects in selected areas. In several of these projects however, the involvement of local authorities, NGOs, scientific community and general public, appear to be insufficient or unclear. Generally, active participation of all concerned parties to the ICZM efforts are not yet at sufficient levels.
4. It is necessary for several countries to further develop their capabilities on the use of important ICZM tools and techniques, including Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA), land and sea use planning, carrying capacity assessment, Decision Support Systems (DSS), and Geographic Information System (GIS). The use of market-oriented economic instruments, such as monetary incentives for better management practices, environmental or resource use taxes, does not virtually exist throughout the region.
5. Although there has been a notable increase in the Mediterranean during the 1990's, collaborated research activities at regional or sub-regional scale, on topics which are significant for coastal and sea management, are not yet at a sufficient level. For several coastal and marine problems, collaborated research involving institutions from countries of the region or a sub-region, would be cost effective and scientifically more rational - since it would be a holistic coverage - on the one hand, and would contribute to the research capacity building of the institutions in developing countries on the other.
6. In several Mediterranean & Black Sea countries, the data and information needed for designing and implementing coastal management programs, particularly the historical data extending sufficient periods into the past, are scarcely available. The limitations on allocated funds, inability for continuing long term monitoring and data acquisition programs, and insufficient level of international cooperation for monitoring programs are the main reasons for the shortage of useful data and information. Reliability of the data available adds up to the severity of this problem.
7. The difficulties associated with the availability of existing data and information, including non-standard formats and limitations imposed on the use of data and information, impose significant limitations for ICZM plans and programs.
8. In several Mediterranean and Black Sea countries, the present capabilities for coastal and marine monitoring and data collection, including available instrumentation and personal resources, are not yet adequate.
9. Public awareness in the region on coastal and marine management issues is not generally at sufficient level to safeguard good management practices. There is a potential role for national and international NGOs in raising public awareness. Campaigns and programs are also essential for improving the awareness of the decision-makers in the region.
10. In order to achieve environmentally sustainable development, there exists an outstanding need for education and training in ICZM of various sectors, e.g. general public, NGOs, policy makers, and professionals, and their educa-tional and training needs are different. In the Mediterranean and Black Sea countries, the available training and educational programs in the area of coastal and marine management, incorporating a multi-disciplinary approach to resolving complex social, economic and environmental issues which are commonly observed in coastal areas, are far from being sufficient. Generally, there is a lack of educational materials. Providing specialized tools and skills to the professionals for designing and implementing ICZM programs, is presently a major challenge in the region.
11. There is a lack of information regarding real demand in the Mediterranean and Black Sea countries for integrated coastal zone managers, and various employment opportunities for professionals trained in this relatively new discipline.
12. Environmental planning and management disciplines in the region are generally narrowly focused and fragmentary, reflecting the traditional sectoral approach to education and training, and curriculum development in their respective fields. University programs in ICZM at the graduate (e.g. master degree) level in the Mediterranean and Black Sea countries are either not available or not sufficient. This is aggravated by the lack of specialized education and training materials (including text books). There exists a need for well designed curricula in major languages used in the region.
13. The number of networks in the region are in increase, with the potential to contribute to development of science and scientific tools, training and education, and implementation practices in ICZM. However, funding constraints jeopardize their sustainability and inhibit their access by a broader group of users. This is particularly true with respect to cross-regional networks (e.g. between the Mediterranean and Black Seas).
1. In several countries of the region, institutional arrangements need to be strengthened, particu-larly in the form of inter-agency planning and decision making, and coordinating agencies, at both national and local levels, in order to move away from classical sectoral approach towards integration of several, often conflicting interests. The role of all actors, including NGOs, scientific community, private sector, and general public, in the process of ICZM should be clearly identified and ensured in a bottom-up approach. National capabilities for using important ICZM tools and instruments including strategic planning, GIS, land and sea use planning, models and decision support systems, EIA, cost-benefit analysis, risk analysis, and economic instruments should be enhanced. Measures for adequate enforcement of legislation should be undertaken by all countries of the region.
2. ICZM should be integrated into national devel-opment strategies by catalyzing domestic and external sources of funding, and by providing arrangements for preparation and execution of ICZM plans, programs and pilot projects.
3. The socio-economic benefits of ICZM should be publicized and communicated to the policy makers and professionals. Similarly, rigorous cost-benefit analysis and other environmental economic tools should be applied to policies and management regimes affecting coastal and marine areas to identify true social and environmental costs associated with decisions. A tourist tax should be levied throughout the region, and the revenues collected should be used for environmental rehabilitation and infrastructure.
4. For demonstrating the benefits of ICZM and for enhancing national capabilities, local scale pilot projects, with active participation of local authorities, NGOs, scientific community, pri-vate sector, and with inputs from the general public, would be highly beneficial. Arrange-ments should be made for implementation and follow up of pilot projects as essential tools for further strengthening of ICZM in both regions. It would be beneficial to establish procedures for monitoring, evaluation and reporting, following the implementation of ICZM programs and pilot projects.
5. The Mediterranean and Black Sea Action Plans should design and implement mechanisms for encouraging Parties to the relevant Conventions to develop effective de-centralized cooperation at bi-lateral and/or regional scale, for generating information and designing tools and methodologies for ICZM and for developing the required expertise and human resources in the countries. A standing unit, including representation of NGOs and the scientific community, should be established under the Action Plans for the purposes of monitoring the national progresses of the riparian countries in conforming with the agreed regional goals and actions, and reporting the state-of-the-progress reports at regular intervals. The Mediterranean Commission for Sustainable Development may carry out this function for the Mediterranean.
6. A fact finding study aiming at identification of common regional or sub-regional coastal and marine issues and problems on the one hand, and national resources (infrastructural and human) and needs for addressing these issues on the other, would be highly valuable to design the future programs involving collabo-rated research, data collection and monitoring. A logical procedure for such a study would be;
(a) short state-of-the-art reports for each country by national experts,
(b) a questionnaire sent to all institutions mentioned in national reports,
(c) a team of experts visiting each of the Mediterranean and Black Sea countries for on-site observation of capabilities and issues, and
(d) preparation of the regional fact finding report.
MEDCOAST network could be used for carrying out this study.
7. Creation of decentralized networks of academic institutions for collaborated research on impor-tant coastal and marine issues, through a holis-tic approach at regional or sub-regional scale, should be encouraged and supported by inter-national organizations and donors active in the region. Significant benefits would be derived from regional or sub-regional research projects on several important issues including; wind and wave climate; coastal erosion; water pollution modelling; coastal and marine ecosystems; ecosystem modelling; management issues of special coastal areas such as lagoons, wetlands, dunes, etc.; management of migratory endangered species; fisheries research; tourism; coastal resource use patterns, etc.
8. Consolidation of the available information on coastal and marine resources, uses, and issues, together with environmental quality parame-ters, for generating a GIS data base for the entire Mediterranean and Black Sea, would greatly help the existing and future manage-ment efforts at national and regional levels.
9. Common international formats and standards for monitoring and data collection should be followed by all institutions of the riparian countries in order to facilitate the ready ensemble of the data and accuracy of the information. Both of these features are essential for building a reliable data base, national or regional. A regional coastal and marine center should be established, which could promote the common formats and standards, and could function as a server to guide users to the source where the required data and/or information is available.
10. Creation of updated directories of individual experts and institutions (research, training/ education, implementation), working on issues relevant to coastal and marine management in the Mediterranean and Black Sea countries, would provide a valuable source of informa-tion, which would contribute to enhancement of collaboration in the region. These directories could be put into internet, under MEDCOAST home page, and can be updated regularly.
11. An internationally accredited university degree in ICZM at the masters level, which would be available for students from the region, should be developed with external resources currently directed at non-degree level training (e.g. certificate or diploma). As an interim measure to fill the need for formal training of ICZM professionals and to foster their continuing development, twining arrangements between universities, within and outside the region, with expertise in ICZM, should be encouraged. This would avail the Mediterranean and Black Sea institutions of expertise not readily available in either region. An assessment quantifying the ICZM training needs in the region, and the demand for ICZM profession-als, including current and projected employ-ment opportunities, should be undertaken.
12. Centralized and decentralized networks should be promoted and supported for enhancing the sharing of experience and information at inter-national, inter-regional (e.g. Mediterranean and Black Seas), and regional levels. Networks in both regions should be mutually inclusive, accessible and reinforcing. There should be a more effective interaction and collaboration between two regions in designing and implementing ICZM.
13. In the light of the above conclusions and recommendations, MEDCOAST should:
(a) encourage and support professionals to better contribute to the enhancement of public awareness in the field of ICZM;
(b) develop a masters level education and training program in coastal and sea management for the Mediterranean and Black Seas, and continue with the already existing short term training programs;
(c) facilitate joint projects by involving the institutions within its network so as to encourage collaborative research at the regional or sub-regional level;
(d) act as a data and information storage and management center for serving data and information which, when passed to the scientific community via newsletter, internet, workshops and training programs, etc., would also diffuse out to the general public.
The participants of the MED & Black Sea ICZM Workshop 96 recommends the establish-ment of International MEDCOAST Center to serve as a permanent base and facility for carrying out the above functions, together with the already developed MEDCOAST activities.
14. The above thirteen recommendations can not be implemented without the assistance of the international development community, in partnership with the national and regional institutions of the regions, including the public sector, private sector, educational and research organizations, networks, NGOs and community based organizations. International organizations and donors active in the region are encouraged to identify and support regional environmental and scientific networks, research, training and educational activities, pilot ICZM implemen-tation projects and ICZM programs, develop-ment and enhancement of the national ICZM capabilities, and investment activities required by ICZM, which are particularly appropriate to their mandate and program scope in the Mediterranean and Black Sea regions.